Frequently Asked Questions
The word “Tisane” indicates beverages that are made from an infusion of herbs and spices or other plant material in hot water. It can be a pure herbal/spice drink or a combination of herbs and spices to make an infused drink.
Bioavailability refers to the extent a substance or drug or herbs becomes completely available to its intended biological destination(s).
Many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their extraordinary potential in-vitro finding, demonstrate less or no in-vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size or both, ultimately resulting in poor absorption and poor bioavailability.
To improve the performance of the drugs or herbs, spices been used to enhance the bioavailability. These spices are called bioavailability enhancers.
‘Bioavailability enhancers’ are herbs facilitators, they are the molecules which by themselves do not show typical herbs activity but when used in combination they enhance the activity of herbs molecule in several ways including increasing bioavailability of the herbs across the membrane, potentiating the herbs molecule by conformational interaction, acting as receptors for herbs molecule and making target cells more receptive to herbs. A ‘bioenhancer’ is an agent capable of enhancing bioavailability and bio efficacy of a particular herb with which it is combined, without any typical pharmacological activity of its own at the dose used.
These are also termed as ‘absorption enhancers’ which are functional excipients included in formulations to improve the absorption of pharmacologically active herbs.
The term ‘bioavailability enhancer’ was first coined by Indian scientists at the Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu (RRL, now known as Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu), who discovered and scientifically validated piperine as the world’s first bioavailability enhancer in 1979.
C.K. Atal, the Director of the institute scrutinized a list of ancient Indian Ayurvedic formulations used in the treatment of a wide range of diseases. He observed that a majority of Ayurvedic formulations contained either Trikatu or else one of the ingredients of Trikatu, namely Piper longum (P. longum) (210 formulations out of 370 reviewed) which is used in a large variety of diseases. He formed the working hypothesis that Trikatu increased the efficacy of formulations. Trikatu has three ingredients: black pepper (Piper nigrum), long pepper (P. longum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Based on this hypothesis, these ingredients were studied, which found that one of the ingredients, ‘P. longum’, ‘Piper’ increased the bioavailability of many drugs or herbs.
The drug or herbs must cross the epithelial barrier of the intestinal mucosa for it to be transported from the lumen of the gut into the systemic circulation and exert its biological actions. There are many anatomical and biological barriers for the oral drug delivery system to penetrate the epithelial membrane.
There are many structures in the intestinal epithelium which serve as barriers to the transfer of herbs from the gastrointestinal track to the systemic circulation. An aqueous stagnant layer due its hydrophilic nature is potential barrier to the absorption of drugs or herbs.
The drug molecules larger than about 0.4 nm have difficulty in passing through these aqueous channels.
Recent work has shown that drug efflux pumps like P-glycoprotein possess a very important role in inhibiting efficient drug entry into the systemic circulation.
P-glycoprotein is a type of ATPase and an energy dependent transmembrane drug efflux pump, it belongs to members of ABC transporters. It has a molecular weight of -170 kDa and has 1 280 amino acid residues.
Many of the absorption enhancers are effective in improving the intestinal absorption, such as bile salts, surfactants, fatty acids, chelating agents, salicylates and polymers. Chitosan, particularly trimethylated chitosan, increases the drug absorption via paracellular route by redistribution of the cytoskeletal F-actin, causing the opening of the tight junctions. Bile, bile salts and fatty acids are surfactants which act as absorption enhancers by increasing the solubility of hydrophobic drugs in the aqueous layer or by increasing the fluidity of the apical and basolateral membranes. Calcium chelators such as ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhance absorption by reducing the extracellular calcium concentration, leading to the disruption of cell-cell contacts.
P-glycoprotein inhibitors reverse P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux in an attempt to improve the efficiency of drug transport across the epithelial membrane. P-glycoprotein inhibitors influences metabolism, absorption, distribution, and elimination of P-glycoprotein substrates in the process of modulating pharmacokinetics.
There are several mechanisms of action by which herbal bioenhancers act. Different herbal bioenhancers may have same or different mechanisms of action. Nutritional bioenhancers enhance absorption by acting on gastrointestinal tract. Antimicrobial bioenhancers mostly act on drug metabolism processes.
- Among the various mechanisms of action postulated for herbal bioenhancers some are
- reduction in hydrochloric acid secretion and increase in gastrointestinal blood supply,
- inhibition of gastrointestinal transit, gastric emptying time, and intestinal motility,
- modifications in GIT epithelial cell membrane permeability,
- cholagogue effect,
- bioenergetics and thermogenic properties
- suppression of first pass metabolism and inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes and stimulation of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity which enhances uptake of amino acids.
Lipid solubility and molecular size are the major limiting factors for molecules to pass the biological membrane and to be absorbed systematically following oral or topical administration.
Several plant extracts and phytoconstituents, despite having excellent bioactivity in vitro demonstrate less or no in vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size or both, resulting poor absorption and poor bioavailability. It is often found that, when individual constituents are isolated from the plant extract there is loss of specific bioactivity. Sometimes some constituents of the multi-constituent plant extract are destroyed in gastric environment when taken orally. They reduce the dose, shorten the treatment period, and thus reduce drug resistance problems. Due to dose economy, they make treatment cost-effective, minimize drug toxicity and adverse reactions.
Levels of hydrogen peroxide H(2)O(2) in the human body may be controlled not only by catabolism but also by excretion, and H(2)O(2) could play a role in the regulation of renal function and as an antibacterial agent in the urine.
Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme found in all aerobic organisms that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
Liver contains a specific enzyme called catalase. When hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is added to liver, a chemical reaction occurs which results in the products of oxygen gas (O2) and liquid water (H2O).
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is generated under autoxidation of some components of beverages including flavonoids and ascorbate, especially in ginger, tea and coffee. As polyphenols are also present in solid food, especially in vegetables, there was research to check whether hydrogen peroxide is generated during cooking of several common vegetables. The formation of hydrogen peroxide was found in the decoctions of all cooked vegetables like broad bean, broccoli, onion, and leek. carrot and cauliflower during this research.
Hydrogen peroxide food is great for cleaning internal organs, mouth, and teeth. When hydrogen peroxide rich food is taken, it can increase oxygen levels in the body. Pathogens in the human body are primarily anaerobic, meaning that they cannot survive in oxygen rich environments.
Higher exposures may cause a build-up of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), a medical emergency, with severe shortness of breath. Exposure to Hydrogen Peroxide can cause headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting.
Hydrogen peroxide has been detected in surface water, in groundwater, and in the atmosphere. It forms upon illumination of water.
Obesity is generally caused by consuming more calories – particularly those in fatty and sugary foods – than you burn off through physical activity. The excess energy is stored by the body as fat.
Obesity is an increasingly common problem because for many people modern living involves eating excessive amounts of cheap, high-calorie food and spending a lot of time sitting down at desks, on sofas or in cars.
There are also some underlying health conditions that can occasionally contribute to weight gain, such as an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), although these types of conditions don’t usually cause weight problems if they’re effectively controlled with balancing food intake along with physical activity.
Obesity can cause number of further problems, including difficulties with daily activities and serious health conditions.
Day-to-day problems related to obesity include:
- increased sweating
- difficulty doing physical activity.
- often feeling very tired
- joint and back pain
- low confidence and self-esteem
- feeling isolated
The psychological problems associated with being obese can also affect your relationships with family and friends and may lead to depression.
Ayurveda, a natural system of life, originated in India more than 3,000 years ago. The term Ayurveda is derived from the Sanskrit words ayur (life) and veda (science or knowledge). Thus, Ayurveda translates to knowledge of life.
According to Ayurveda, the human body is composed of four basics-the dosha, dhatu, mala and agni. There is immense significance of all these basics of the body in Ayurveda. These are also called the ‘Mool Siddhant’ or the ‘basic fundamentals of Ayurveda’.
Ayurveda is also called the “science of longevity” because it offers a complete system to live a long healthy life. It offers methodology to rejuvenate the body through diet and nutrition. It offers corrective methods to cure many common issues such as food allergies, which have few modern treatments.
In essence, Ayurveda teaches life science – the way of living naturally. It helps us to live our lives healthy and longevity.
Three dosha are otherwise called Doctrine of Humoural pathology. Humoural pathology explains that all diseases are caused by the mixture of the three cardinal humours viz wind (air), bile (heat), and phlegm (water) and that the relative proportion of these humours are responsible for the person’s physical and mental qualities and dispositions. The three humours under reference are called “Tridosha” or “Three Dosha” in Ayurveda. They are the three fundamental principles and essential factors in the composition and constitution of the human body. These three humours viz Wind, Bile and Phlegm represent respectively the air, the fire and the water of the five elements which form the connecting link between microcosm or human body and macrocosm or world.
The external air corresponds to the internal Vayu; the external Heat corresponds to the internal Pitta; and the external Water corresponds to the internal Phlegm (Kapha). Human is thus linked with the external world; and any change in the elementary condition of the external world has its corresponding change in the human organism; and it is upon this inter change of influences that the Tridosha or Three dosha theory and the doctrine of Humoural pathology are based.
According to the Indian life Science, the three humours in their normal order occupy respectively the lower, middle and upper parts of the body and maintain their integrity – the Vayu in the regions of the pelvis and the return; the buttocks in the region of the stomach and the internal viscera and the phlegm in the region of the breath, throat and head. It is also that the characteristics of the three humours in the constitution of human is either hereditary or atavic. In scientific parlance, Vayu comprehends all the phenomena which come under the functions of the central and the symphathetic nervous system; Pitta, the functions of thermogenesis or heat production, metabolism within its limits, the process of digestion, colouration of blood, excretion, and secretion etc; and Kapha, the regulation of the heat and the formation of various preservative glands. Thus, we see that the Indian life Science is based on morbific diathesis; and the human dispositions are inseparable from the three humours.
No, the three humours maintain the upkeep of the human body through their combined functioning. When deranged, they bring about diseases peculiar to their influence; when in equilibrium, freedom from disease; and when one or the other of the humours combine in such a way as to get deranged by aggravation diminution etc., disease or illness may be the result. The humours by themselves are not the producers of diseases in their normal functioning; but they give rise to diseases if they are vitiated by other functioning; but they give rise to diseases if they are vitiated by other factors; and hence we see that humours and diseases are altogether different and have no connection in their normal condition. Humours may be said to be the component parts of the human organism; and disease the outcome of external factors that put those organisms out of order.